A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech. There are three verbals in English.
The three verbals — gerunds, infinitives, and participles — are formed from verbs, but are never used alone as action words in sentences. Instead, verbals function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. These verbals are important in phrases.
- An infinitive is a verbal usually formed by placing “to” before the simple present form or base form of a verb.
Except: when the infinitive follows these special verbs in a sentence
Ex: fear, hear, help, let, make, see and watch
- “to” is dropped and the pattern will be like this:
special verb + direct object + infinitive – to
- The infinitive is called a “bare infinitive”
A gerund is a form of a verb that is used as a noun. It is formed by taking the present participle (-ing) of the verb, for example, “running” or “swimming.” Gerunds can be used in a variety of ways in a sentence, such as the subject, object, or complement.
- When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to understand that they are not the same.
- When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund: Jumping is fun.
- Swimming is my favorite hobby. (used as the subject of the sentence)
- He enjoys playing guitar. (used as the object of the verb “enjoys”)
- Her dream is to become a doctor. (used as the complement of the sentence)
- He is good at solving problems. (used as a subject complement)
- He spent the afternoon painting the house. (used as an object of the preposition “painting”)
- A participle is a verb that ends in -ing or -ed.
- A present participle ends in -ing
Ex: A growing baby sleeps much of the day.
Bonduel is a farming community.
- A past participle ends in -ed
Ex: The conquered territory was under Spanish control.
Troubled, she asked for advice.