Using Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs | English Grammar

The structure “have + past participle” is called a perfect infinitive.

In this lesson, we will learn about the combination between modal verb and perfect infinitive.

Using Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs

Form:

MODAL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Usage:

  • to refer to the past
  • to refer to unreal situations
  • to show that the activity was different from what we wanted
  • to say how confident we are that something has happened

Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs

Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs

Must + Have + Past Participle

Express deduction, a logical conclusion, probability

  • It is very cold; it must have snowed in the mountains.
  • If you can’t find your car keys, you must have left them in the house.

Can’t/Couldn’t + Have + Past Participle

Express negative deduction (impossibility in the past)

  • She can’t have passed such a difficult exam. 

Could + Have + Past Participle

Express past reference about something that was not carried out

  • You could have done it. (You didn’t do it)  
  • She could have called the doctor early in the morning. (She didn’t call the doctor)

Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs

May + Have + Past Participle

Express the possibility that an action took place in the past

  • The little girl may have lost the key. (It is possible that she lost the key.)  

Might + Have + Past Participle

Express a past possibility

  • Our neighbours might have heard some noises when our car was stolen.

Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs

Needn’t + Have + Past Participle

Express an unnecessary action, which was, nevertheless, performed

  • needn’t have knocked at the door since, in this way, I awoke the baby. (But I knocked)
  • You needn’t have bought the flowers.

Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs

Should + Have + Past Participle

Indicate that the past obligation was not fulfilled or carried out

  •  You should have locked the door before leaving the house. (But you didn’t lock it.) 

Should + Have + Past Participle

Ought to + Have + Past Participle

Express an unfulfilled duty or obligation

  •  Paul ought to have waited until the lights were green before he crossed  the street. (But he didn’t wait.)

Should + Have + Past Participle

Would + Have + Past Participle

The third conditional

  • would have gone to university if my parents had had more money. (The speaker didn’t go to university.)

Would + Have + Past Participle

Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs | Image

Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs

Using Perfect Infinitives with Modal Verbs | English Grammar 1

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hernan suarez
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hernan suarez

is a excelent page ,i can learn more easy

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[…] as I could see it (ongoing state) vs. I saw it (event). The use of  “could”  with the perfect infinitive expresses past ability or possibility, either in some  counterfactual circumstance (I could have […]

joel koma
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joel koma

l can now speak english with grammer due to this page.