1. Coordinating conjunctions
The English language has seven coordinating conjunctions, and they’re easy to remember if you can just remember FANBOYS:
Explains reason or purpose (just like “because”)
- I go to the park every Sunday, for I love to watch the ducks on the lake.
Adds one thing to another
- She sat next him and listened quietly.
Used to present an alternative negative idea to an already stated negative idea
- Tom neither confirmed nor denied the rumors.
- She wants to buy a car, but she can’t afford to.
Presents an alternative or a choice
- Which do you like better, apples or bananas?
Introduces a contrasting idea that follows the preceding idea logically
- I always take a book to read, yet I never to turn a single page.
Indicates effect, result or consequence
- I’m hungry, so I’m going to get something to eat.
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating conjunction show the relationship between two parts of a sentence
- He is cleverer than I am.
- I will have tea rather than coffee.
- You must decide whether you will go by train or by plane.
As much as
- I eat as much as you.
- Elliot is tall and blond, whereas his brother is short and has dark hair.
- She went to the school that my father went to.
- I copied in my notebook whatever he wrote on the blackboard.
- The car which I drive is old.
- Bruce will wear his pink or green sweater, whichever is clean.
- Mary closed his diary after writing about that day's events.
As soon as
- A baby deer can stand as soon as it is born.
As long as
- You can use my car as long as you drive carefully.
He always feeds the dogs before he goes to school.
By the time
- By the time ambulancemen arrived he was unconscious.
- You can go and play now that you have finished your homework.
- Once you learn it, you never forget.
- Mary has danced since she was five.
- James lived with his parents till he was twenty - five.
- You can stay on the bus until you reach London.
- Tom's parents cheered for him when he crossed the finished line.
- Whenever we go abroad, we take as many pictures as possible.
- While I was walking to the market, I met Jenny.
- Though it was raining, she went out.
- Although the kitchen is small, it is well designed.
- Even though he's a millionaire, he lives in a very small flat.
- The person who made the mess needs to clean it.
- Whoever leaves last should turn off the light.
- She's the man whom I met in Greece.
- He was free to marry whomever he chose.
- She's the student whose handwriting is the best in my class.
- This is the park where we played.
- Wherever you go in the world, you'll always find someone who speaks English.
- If you leave, I will be lonely.
- Only if a teacher has given permission is a student allowed to leave the room.
- You won't succeed unless you work hard.
- I was allowed to go off by myself provided that I promised to be careful.
- I hope to go to college next year, assuming that I pass my exams.
- Even if you have already bought your ticket, you will still need to wait in line.
In case (that)
- I have my umbrella with me in case it rains.
- Study hard lest you should fail.
- She taught him how to play the piano.
- They look as though they're heading for divorce.
- At sunset, the sun looks as if it is going down.
- I love Matisse's work because he uses color so brilliantly.
- Since we've got a few minutes to wait for the train, let's have a cup of coffee.
- I’ll go by car so that I can take more luggage.
In order (that)
- Do exercises in order that your health may improve.
- We eat that we may live.
- We played chess all evening as we had nothing better to do.
3. Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions Join similar words, but are always used in pairs
- She played both hockey and basketball when she was a student.
- I will eat either carrots or peas for dinner.
- Natalie, likes neither milk nor cream cake.
- Do you care whether we have noodles or rice for dinner?
Not only…but also
- Not only will they paint the outside of the house but also the inside.
- He is such a bad-tempered person that no one can work with him for long.
- Scarcely had she finished reading when she fell asleep.
- No sooner did he enter the room than he saw a snake.