How to Pronounce the -ED Ending Correctly in English

To form the past simple and past participle of regular verbs we add –ed ...


Past Participles – Video

The final -ed ending has three different pronunciations: /id/, /t/, and /d/

1) Final -ed is pronounced /id/

Final -ed is pronounced /id/ after verbs ending in /t/ or /d/ sounds, examples:

  • add - added
  • lift - lifted
  • end -ended
  • rest - rested
  • defend - defended
  • wait - waited
  • pretend - pretended
  • want - wanted

2) Final -ed is pronounced /t/

Finl -ed is pronounced /t/ after verbs ending in voiceless sounds except /t/, examples:

  • /p/ - dropped, shaped, sipped, wrapped, hoped
  • /k/ - dropped, locked, marked, wrecked, liked
  • /f/ - coughed, laughed, photographed, puffed
  • /θ/ - bathed, toothed
  • /s/ - danced, placed, kissed, missed, faxed
  • /∫/ - brushed, flashed, rushed, wished, washed
  • /t∫/ - pinched, reached, touched, watched

3) Final -ed is pronounced /d/

Final -ed is pronounced /d/ after verbs ending in voiced sounds except /d/. Voiced sounds include vowel sounds:

  • /i: / - keyed, guaranteed
  • /I/ - pitied, envied, worried, carried
  • /ɑ:/ - barred, scarred
  • /ɜ:/ - preferred, referred,
  • /ə/ -  answered, bothered, gathered
  • /eI/ - stayed, delayed, played, weighed
  • /b/ - disturbed, robbed, grabbed
  • /g/ - begged, dragged
  • /m/ - aimed, seemed
  • /ð/ - clothed, bathed, mouthed
  • /z/ - dazed, pleased, caused
  • /l/ - called, killed, rolled, boiled, mailed


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