We form some adjectives from verbs by adding -ing or -ed endings to them. Adjectives that end -ed and adjectives that end -ing are often confused.
1. Adjectives ending in –ing
- Adjectives ending in –ing describe the effect that something has on someone’s feelings. They describe a process or state that continues over a period of time and have an active meaning.
- The suffix –ing is related to cause. When the adjective ends in –ing, it means that the person or thing causes this particular effect.
- The lesson is boring. (In this sentence BORING characterizes lesson. It bores students.)
- Snakes terrify me. They are such terrifying creatures.
- Julia thinks politics is very interesting.
- The news was shocking.
2. Adjectives ending in –ed
- Adjectives ending in –ed describe people’s feelings. They have the same form as the past participle of a transitive verb and have a passive meaning.
- When the adjective ends in –ed, it means that the person or thing experiences this particular effect.
- The students are bored with the lesson. (In this sentence, BORED is how the students feel)
- Snakes terrify me. I’m always terrified when I see one.
- Julia is very interested in politics.
- We were shocked when we heard the news.
3. We can use the following words before adjectives ending in -ing and -ed: extremely, quite, very, not very, not…
- I’m extremely interested in history.
- He was very bored with the lecture.
- They are quite exciting.
- I was not very surprised.
4. List of Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing
- Amaze – amazing – amazed
- Annoy – annoying – annoyed
- Astonish – astonishing – astonished
- Bore – boring – bored
- Convince – convincing – convinced
- Disgust – disgusting – disgusted
- Embarrass – embarrassing – embarrassed
- Excite – exciting – excited
- exhaust – exhausting – exhausted
- depress – depressing – depressed
- disappoint – disappointing – disappointed
- frighten – frightening – frightened
- interest – interesting – interested
- relax – relaxing – relaxed
- satisfy – satisfying – satisfied
- shock – shocking – shocked
- surprise – surprising – surprised
- terrify – terrifying – terrified
- tire – tiring – tired
- worry – worrying – worried