Lessons for ESL teachers and students, ESL Teaching Notes and Ideas.
10+ ESL Teaching Notes and Ideas
Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They indicate the manner, time, place, or degree in which an action is performed or a state is described. Examples include “quickly,” “carefully,” “yesterday,” and “there.” They usually answer questions like how, when, where, in what manner and to what extent.
Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns or pronouns in a sentence. They can indicate the size, shape, color, or other characteristics of the noun or pronoun they modify. Examples of adjectives include “big,” “round,” “red,” and “happy.”
Homonyms are words that have the same pronunciation or spelling as another word, but have a different meaning. Examples include “bass” (a type of fish) and “bass” (a low-frequency sound or a musical instrument), “flower” (a plant) and “flower” (to produce blossoms). Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings and may be spelled differently. Examples include “flower” and “flour”, “bass” and “base”, “flower” and “flour”.
Confused words in English are words that are often mistaken for one another due to their similar spelling, pronunciation, or meaning. Some examples include:
- affect vs. effect
- accept vs. except
- advice vs. advise
- aloud vs. allowed
- bare vs. bear
- brake vs. break
- complement vs. compliment
- council vs. counsel
- desert vs. dessert
- discreet vs. discrete
- stationary vs. stationery
Learn Commonly Confused Words in English with Picture.
Conjunctions in English are words that connect other words, phrases, or clauses. They are used to coordinate or subordinate elements in a sentence. Some common conjunctions in English include “and,” “or,” “but,” “because,” “so,” “yet,” “although,” “while,” “if,” “whether,” and “although.” They can be used to connect words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence, or to connect entire sentences. Conjunctions are a crucial part of English grammar and are used to create complex and nuanced sentences.
Collective nouns are nouns that refer to a group of individuals or things, such as “flock” for a group of birds or “herd” for a group of animals. Examples of collective nouns in English include: group, team, squad, crew, staff, faculty, class, family, pack, herd, flock, etc. These nouns can take either a singular or plural verb, depending on whether the focus is on the group as a whole or on its individual members.
Singular & Plural Nouns
A singular noun refers to one person, place, thing, or idea, while a plural noun refers to more than one of those. For example, “dog” is a singular noun and “dogs” is the plural form of the noun. The way to form the plural of a noun typically depends on the word’s ending sound. Common plural noun forms include adding -s or -es to the end of the word, but there are many exceptions to this rule.
Interjections are words or phrases that are used to express strong emotion or surprise in a sentence. They are often followed by exclamation marks and are not grammatically connected to the rest of the sentence. Examples of interjections include “Wow!”, “Oh no!”, “Hey!”, “Wow”, “Oh”, “Ugh”.
Symbols & Abbreviations
Symbols are characters or images that are used to represent something else, such as an idea or a physical object. Examples of symbols include mathematical symbols like “+” and “-“, as well as iconic symbols like the dollar sign “$” or the ampersand “&”.
Abbreviations are shortened forms of words or phrases. They can be made by using the first letter of each word in a phrase, such as “Mr.” for “Mister” or “Dr.” for “Doctor”. Abbreviations can also be created by using a combination of letters from within a word, such as “etc.” for “et cetera” or “lb.” for “pound”. Abbreviations are used to save space and time, such as in written or typed text, and also used in shorthand or informal writing.
Suffixes & Prefixes
A suffix is a letter or group of letters that are added to the end of a word to change its meaning or function. For example, the suffix “-ness” can be added to the adjective “happy” to form the noun “happiness.”
A prefix is a letter or group of letters that are added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning or function. For example, the prefix “un-” can be added to the verb “happy” to form the adjective “unhappy.”
Both prefixes and suffixes are used to create new words or change the grammatical function of existing words. They are a common way to derive new words from existing words in English language and also in many other languages.
Prepositions are words that indicate the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. They are used to show the position, location, direction, or time of the noun or pronoun. Some examples of prepositions include “in,” “on,” “at,” “with,” “by,” “to,” and “from.”
Prepositions often precede a noun or pronoun, which is known as the object of the preposition, to form a prepositional phrase. These phrases can function as adjectives or adverbs in a sentence. For example, in the sentence “The book is on the table,” the preposition “on” is used with the noun “table” to indicate its location. “On the table” is the prepositional phrase, which is acting as an adverb modifying the verb “is”.
Pronouns are words that are used in place of a noun or noun phrase. They are used to avoid repeating the same noun or noun phrase over and over again. Pronouns include words like “I,” “you,” “he,” “she,” “it,” “we,” “they,” “me,” “him,” “her,” “us,” “them,” “mine,” “yours,” “hers,” “his,” “ours,” “theirs,” “myself,” “yourself,” “himself,” “herself,” “itself,” “ourselves,” “themselves” etc.
Irregular verbs are verbs that do not follow the standard pattern of conjugation (i.e changing form) in the past tense and past participle forms. Regular verbs form the past tense and past participle by adding -ed or -d to the base form of the verb. For example, the verb “walk” becomes “walked” in the past tense and “have” becomes “had” in the past participle.
Wednesday 13th of January 2021
Very good notes.
Tuesday 30th of June 2020
Awesome. Excellent material.
Thursday 19th of March 2020
Do you have something in Hindi also.
Thursday 19th of March 2020
Very nice I loved it
Tuesday 11th of February 2020